In less than three decades, the status of cellular telephones has moved from laboratory breadboard via curious luxury item to the world’s most pervasive consumer electronics product. Even though wired telephony is 100 years older and the beneficiary of "universal service" policies in developed countries, the number of cellular phones has exceeded wired phones for a few years and the difference keeps growing. For hundreds of millions of people in developing countries, cellular communications is the only form of telephony they have experienced.

#### Synopsis

This course provides an introduction to mobile communications system principles, design and technology. It also covers state-of-the-art topics such as LTE (SC-FDMA).

#### Announcements

- Final exam information
- Date: March 9, 2010
- Time: 9-12
- Here is the first page of the exam.
- The following formulas are provided on page 12 of the exam. Note that it may by barely readable on the actual exam.
- Camera will raised suspicion. Do not take it into or use it inside the exam room.
- Here are the combined powerpoint slides for Chapter 4, Chapter 5, and Chapter 6

- Scores for all HWs and quizzes are posted. [Posted @ 9:00PM on Mar 7]
- Solutions for quiz 2, 3, 4, 5 are posted.
- Self-evaluation form is posted. [Posted @ 11:00PM on Feb 23]
- All of those who took quiz 4 got 10/10. [Posted @ 12:50PM on Feb 2]
- The scores Quiz 2 are posted. [Posted @ 9AM on Jan 26]
- HW5 is posted. Due Feb 5, 2010. [Posted @ 9:30AM on Jan 19]
- HW4 is posted. Due Jan 12, 2010. [Posted @ 3:30PM on Jan 5]
- Solution of the midterm is posted. [Posted @ 9AM on Dec 30]
- Midterm scores are posted. [Posted @ 9AM on Dec 30]
- The scores for HW1, HW2, and Quiz 1 are posted. The leftmost column shows the last three digits of your ID.
- Midterm exam information
- Date: 22 Dec 2009
- TIME: 09:00 - 12:00
- ROOM: BKD 2602 & BKD 2605
- Material: Lecture 1 up to and including lecture 13
- A combined version of the pre-midterm slides are posted as slides for lecture 14.
- The following formulas are provided.
- The first page of the exam is posted.
- There will be an extra review session (in Thai) for those who can't completely catch the review that I made in lecture 14 because it is in English. There will not be any new information or examples given. It will be on Monday December 21 @ 4:35 PM.
- Room: BKD: 3206 (same room as Microwave exam)

- I will be in my office on Monday the whole day to answer any exam-related questions.

- All of those who took quiz 1 got 10/10. [Posted @ 5:30PM on Dec 15]
- HW3 is posted. [Posted @ 10AM on Dec 8]
- Appendix A.1 of Rappaport (1995) is posted on the SIIT online lecture note system[Posted @ 9AM on Nov 30]
- For Tuesday lecture (lecture 10), please read Appendix A.1 of Rappaport before you come to class. [Posted @8AM on Nov 30]
- HW typo: There should be a factor of 1/2 in the exponent of the Rayleigh pdf. [Posted @11AM on Nov 26]
- HW2 is posted on the SIIT online lecture note system[Posted @ 9AM on Nov 19]
- The
*Tuesday*lecture will be in the room BKD 3216 starting today. [Posted @ 8:30AM on Nov 10] - A lousy RSS feed for this page is created. All changes to the content below should be reported by the feed. [Posted @ 10:22AM on Nov 4]
- HW1 is posted! [Posted @ 10AM on Nov 4]
- Welcome to TCS455! Feel free to look around this site. [Posted @ 11AM on Oct 22]

#### General Information

**Instructor**: Dr. Prapun Suksompong (prapun@siit.tu.ac.th)- Course Syllabus (with updated room info)
**Class information**

**Office Hours**- Room: BKD3601-7
- Tuesday 14:00-16:00
- Thursday 9:30-11:30

- Room: ETU (1st floor, Rangsit campus)
- Friday 15:00-16:00

**Please feel free to ask any question or express any concern after class.**- Required
Textbook: Theodore S. Rappaport,
, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall PTR, 2002. ISBN-13: 978-0130422323. Call No. TK5103.2 R37 2002*Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice*- There are quite a number of typos in this book. Please go to the update page to download the pdf file of the pages that have been fixed.

- References
- A. Goldsmith,
*Wireless Communications*, Cambridge Press, 2005. - G. L. Stueber,
*Principles of Mobile Communication*, 2nd Ed., Norwell, MA: Kluwer, 2001. - John G. Proakis,
*Digital communications*, 4th ed., Boston : McGraw-Hill, c2001. - Whitt, The Erlang B and C Formulas: Problems and Solutions, class notes, 2002
- James R. Norris.
*Markov Chains*. Cambridge University Press, 1997. - The following articles are posted on the SIIT online lecture note system:
- Oetting, J., "Cellular mobile radio,"
*Communications Magazine, IEEE*, vol.21, no.8, pp. 10-15, Nov 1983. - MacDonald, V. H., "The Cellular Concept,"
*Bell System Technical Journal*, vol. 58, no. 1, January, 1979. - Mobile WiMAX - Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation
- Bahai, 2002,
*Evolution of OFDM* - Karim and Sarraf, 2002, Theory of PN Codes

- Paul, T.K.; Ogunfunmi, T., "Wireless LAN Comes of Age: Understanding the IEEE 802.11n Amendment,"
*Circuits and Systems Magazine, IEEE*, vol.8, no.1, pp.28-54, First Quarter 2008. - IEEE Std 802.16-2004

- Oetting, J., "Cellular mobile radio,"
- Spectrum Frequency Chart
- Infographic from Cellphones.org
- GSM World Coverage map
- GSM Asia-Pacific Coverage

#### Handouts and Course Material

- Handout #1: Fourier Transform and Communication Systems
- Slides from lecture 1
- Hadwritten note from lecture 2
- Hadwritten note from lecture 3
- Slides from lecture 3
- Hadwritten note from lecture 4
- Slides from lecture 4
- Hadwritten note from lecture 5 + hexagon sheet
- Slides from lecture 5
- Slides from lecture 6
- Slides from lecture 7
- Handout #2: The Cellular Concept (draft 1)
- A collection of formula involving Poisson random variables and processes are provided at my site on probability theory. The note there is an overkill for this class. We will only study a couple properties of Poisson processes.
- Slides from lecture 8
- Lecture 8: Handout #3: Poisson process with probability review (part 1)
- Lecture 9: Handout #3: Poisson process with probability review (part 2)
- Slides for lecture 10
- Slides for lecture 11
- Lecture 10 and 11: The proof of Erlang B formula
- Handout #4: Erlang B formula and its corresponding Markov Chain
- The "best" introductory textbook on Markov chain is probably the one written by Norris. This again will be an overkill for this class but it serves as a good reference if you want to dig into this topic further. There are some sample chapters available on the web as well.
- Whitt wrote an article that provide several remarks on Erlang B formula via a number of HW exercises. Those who want to read more about Erlang B study may find it interesting.
- See also Appendix A.1 of Rappaport (1995)

- Example of MATLAB code for generation of Poisson process
- Slides for lecture 12
- Slides for lecture 13
- Unless your research topic is on deep probability theory directly, the following note on probability and random variables should be sufficient for your undergraduate study, graduate research, work, and life after death.
- An older version is publicly available on scribd.com

- Solution for Quiz 1 is posted.
- Here is another version which I wrote in class.

- Slides for lecture 14
- Lecture 15: Solution of the midterm
- Slides for lecture 16
- Slides for lecture 17
- Solution for Quiz 2 is posted.
- Slides for lecture 18
- For those who want to know more about Galois Field and its application, one of the best book in the market is written by Stephen B. Wicker.
- I also have my own notes on this topic beased on the textbook above. These notes are graduate-level and hence not required for our class.
- This web site can help you find many primitive polynomials.

- Slides for lecture 19
- Slides for lecture 20
- The first person who finds the error on the last page of slides for lecture 20 gets one more point on the quiz score.

- Slides for lecture 21
- For deeper understanding of DSSS and CDMA, here are two references:
- Chapter 4 and 5 of [J. S. Lee and L. E. Miller,
*CDMA Systems Engineering Handbook*. Boston, MA: Artech House, Oct. 1998]. - Chapter 4 of R.E. Ziemer,
*Fundamentals of Spread Spectrum Modulation*. Colorado Springs: Morgan & Claypool Publishers, 2007

- Chapter 4 and 5 of [J. S. Lee and L. E. Miller,
- Caution:
**This is a mistake in lecture 21**! I should not write H_1 x H_1 = H_2 on the whiteboard. That is not true! Will clarify this in lecture 22.

- For deeper understanding of DSSS and CDMA, here are two references:
- Slides for lecture 22:
- Slides for lecture 23
- For deeper understanding of OFDM, please read
- Bahai, 2002,
*Evolution of OFDM*(posted on the SIIT online lecture note system) - J.A.C.Bingham : "Multicarrier Modulation for Data Transmission : An Idea Whose Time Has Come,"' IEEE Commun. Mag., Vol. 28, No. 5, pp.5-14, May 1990.

- Bahai, 2002,

- For deeper understanding of OFDM, please read
- Slides for lecture 24
- Slides for lecture 25
- Slides for lecture 26
- Slides for lecture 27

#### Problem Set

- HW1 is posted on the SIIT online lecture note system
- This HW forces you to review properties of Fourier transform. Some materials are discussed in Lectures 2 and 3.
- Solution
- Question 1b was graded.

- HW2 is posted on the SIIT online lecture note system
- Read the last question carefully. We don't cover it in lecture but it will be useful later on.
- Typo: There should be a factor of 1/2 in the exponent of the Rayleigh pdf. Thank you aRm for pointing this out. The MATLAB code already has this factor; so there is no need to change that. A new version of HW2 is posted to address this fix.
- Solution: Question 1-6
- Question 4 was graded.

- HW3
- This assignment asks you to use MATLAB to verify the Erlang B formula.
- Here you will use discrete time approximation to simulate Poisson process for the call requests and the exponentially distributed call durations. At the end of the assignment, you will compare the blocking probability that you have in this model with the number from the Erlang B formula.
- You will also see how random variables are generated and analyzed in MATLAB.

**Caution**: The variable A in question 1.d.ii and 1.d.iii is not the same as the variable A in the Erlang B formula.- Solution

- This assignment asks you to use MATLAB to verify the Erlang B formula.
- HW4
- HW5
- HW6
(fixed)
- Partial Solution.
- Submission is needed for grad students.
- All students should try to work on this HW. It will give you a better understanding of OFDM.

#### Calendar

#### Reading Assignment

- Chapter 1
- Chapter 3: 3.1 – 3.2, 3.5.1, 3.6, 3.7.2
- This chapter is posted on the SIIT online lecture note system as a sample chapter.

- Appendix A.1 (Erlang B)
- A scanned copy is posted on the SIIT online lecture note system

- Chapter 9: 9.1-9.5
- Theory of PN Codes from [Karim and Sarraf, W-CDMA and cdma2000 for 3G Mobile Networks, 2002]
- Section 1.2 from [Bahai, Multi-carrier Digital Communications: Theory And Applications Of OFDM, 2002]

#### Course Outline

- Review: Fourier transform and basic communication systems
- Cellular communications, Principles of cellular radio
- Wireless Channel (Part 1)
- Spectrum Allocation
- Frequency Reuse and Sectoring
- Trunking Theory and Erlang B formula
- Poisson Process with review of basic probability theory
- Markov Chain

**MIDTERM**: 22 Dec 2009 TIME 09:00 - 12:00- Duplexing: TDD vs FDD
- Multiple access schemes
- FDMA
- TDMA
- CDMA (Part 1)
- SDMA

- Spread Spectrum Communications
- DSSS and m-sequences
- CDMA (Part 2) and orthogonality, Walsh sequences and Hadamard Matrix
- IS-95
- FHSS
- GPS and Gold codes

- Multi-carrier and OFDM systems
- Wireless Channel (Part 2), multipath propagation and Equalization
- Multi-carrier transmission and frequency division multiplexing
- Orthogonality (revisited)
- DFT and FFT
- Oversampling
- Cyclic Prefix and circular convolution
- OFDMA

- GSM, GPRS, EDGE, UMTS (W-CDMA) and OVSF code
- WiMAX and OFDMA
- LTE and SC-FDMA
**FINAL**: 9 Mar 2010 TIME 09:00 - 12:00

#### Misc. Links

- Prapun's Notes on Communication Theory
- Prapun's Notes on Probability Theory
- C.R. Johnson and W.A. Sethares, Telecommunications Breakdown: Concepts of Communication Transmitted via Software-Defined Radio, Prentice Hall, 2003.
- The Evolution of Cell Phone
- History of Cell Phones
- Marty Cooper, Inventor of the Cell Phone, Recreated the First Cell Phone Call for 60 Minutes on CBS
- The Communicators: Martin Cooper (featured in a "60 Minutes" profile on May 23, 2010)
- Secret communications system: the fascinating story of the lamarr/antheil spread-spectrum patent
- Download IEEE 802 Standards
- The History of the Internet in a Nutshell
- iPhone 3GS Disassembly
- Power Control in OFDMA Wireless Networks
- OFDMA (Rohde and Schwarz)
- The Latest In WiMAX In Depth (from ROCKETBOOM)
- What is WiMAX? (from ROCKETBOOM)
- The IEEE 802.11 Universe
- Learn the Greek Alphabet in less than 10 minutes
- The Greek Alphabet Song